1962 US Highway 90 Biloxi Bay Bridge
[Removal of the Katrina damaged 1962 US Highway 90 Bridge began in July 2006. Core drilling to evaluate foundation conditions for the new span were in progress, as well.]
Image made July 25, 2006 by Ray L. Bellande
In mid-October, 2005 The Mississippi Renewal Forum, a team of national architects, planners, and public officials met in Biloxi with their local counterparts, to “redesign” the severely damaged and partially destroyed Mississippi Gulf Coast. Andres Duany and James Barksdale oversaw the meetings at the Isle of Capri Hotel and Resort. Mayor Moran and her board with local architects, Henry Hansell Furr and Dennis Cowart, were an integral part of these planning sessions.(The Sun Herald, October 17, 2005, p. A1)
When the planning sessions began to rebuild a new US Highway 90 bridge across Biloxi Bay to reunite Ocean Springs with Biloxi, Mayor Moran had extensive discussions with MDOT (Mississippi Department of Transportation) to assure that certain aesthetic and safety issues were met. Her goal was for "a signature bridge,....beautiful, one that can be used for Ocean Springs postcards or the next 60 years." Following one conference, Mayor Moran quoted that MDOT's first plans for rebuilding the bridge would have meant that "we ended up with a lot of concrete spaghetti on our beach, and that was not acceptable." Ms Moran persuaded MDOT to add a protected pedestrian-bike lane, a promenade from the Ocean Springs Yacht Club to pass beneath the structure, decorative concrete and lighting, and landscaping.(The Sun Herald, November 8, 2005, p. A4)
On December 6, 2005, Wayne Brown, MDOT Southern District Commissioner, announced that MDOT would erect a six-lane, one hundred twenty-eight foot wide, bridge across Biloxi Bay. Mayor Moran opposed this plan and favored a smaller, four lane span. Ocean Springs was the only coast city to oppose the bridge because of its scale and fact that it was counter to a plan by New Urbanists to down size US Highway 90 to a pedestrian boulevard. In support of Mayor Moran, the Board of Aldermen of Ocean Springs voted 4-3 to draft a letter to the Federal Highway Commission voicing opposition to the larger bridge.(The Sun Herald, December 7, 2005, p. A1 and p. A8)
In late December 2005, Mayor Moran wrote the Federal Highway Administration requesting MDOT's scheme for erecting a six-lane bridge across Biloxi Bay rather than a smaller span preferred by the City Council of Ocean Springs. MDOT Executive Director Butch Brown replied to Moran's request: "I think it's unfortunate that Mayor Moran has taken this bridge issue when indeed her community is actually in better shape than most on the Coast. Her historic area and district are largely unaffected by the bridge. She's tried to use the bridge to get other concessions." The Biloxi City Council, Harrison County Board of Supervisors, and voted unanimously to erect the six-lane bridge. Mayor Moran even lost support of her own county leaders as the Jackson County Board of Supervisors supported Brown's six-lane bridge. She was lauded by the Board's president for extracting concessions from MDOT in the form of a bike path, decorative concrete, and unique lights.(The Sun Herald, December 23, 2005, p. A1 and p. A9 and The Sun Herald, December 29, 2005, p. A1)
A temporary solution to the Biloxi Bay crossing post-Katrina would be to run a ferry from Ocean Springs to Biloxi and back. This was suggested at the Mississippi Renewal Forum held at Biloxi in October 2005. Forum participants assigned to Ocean Springs created a hypothetical area called “The West End Landing”. It would encompass that area around the OSYC property and the proposed new US Highway 90 span. Here a ferry landing and trolley or rail stop could be located.(Miss. Renewal Forum, 2005, p. 48)
MDOT admitted that it had no experience with temporary ferry service. Pacific Marine Technical Service of Bainbridge, Washington, a consulting group, was hired to study the feasibility of ferry service at Ocean Springs as well at Bay St. Louis. A report was expected from the consultants at the end of April.(The Sun Herald, April 20, 2006, p. A2)
By early June 2006, Pacific Marine Technical Service had not finished its feasibility study for a ferry system for Biloxi Bay and the Bay of St. Louis to provide transportation crossings of these two waterways whose US Highway 90 bridges were rendered useless after the devastating storm surge of Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005. Preliminary investigations indicate that the difficulty to operate a ferry near the existing roadway on both bays are many and varied. Jim Moak, director of MDOT’s ports and waterways division, related that at present, the problems appear to be insurmountable. Among the onerous conditions expected are: construction equipment for the new bridges will be situated in the immediate area of the most optimum ferry routes and dredging to remove storm debris and its deleterious effect on oyster reefs and other marine organism habitats along the proposed ferry routes. At Ocean Springs, MDOT is studying an alternate location for the Biloxi Bay ferry, which would run from the Fayard Seafood site at the foot of Jackson Avenue to a landing on Point Cadet in east Biloxi.(The Sun Herald, June 7, 2006, p. A2)
In September 2006, bids were submitted for a ferry system to operate across the Bay of St. Louis from Henderson Point in Harrison County to Bay St. Louis in Hancock County. MDOT took bids assuming that the Federal Highway Administration would pay all costs for the public ferry service. MDOT required the following from perspective bidders: two vessel; each vessel must be capable of a least thirty-five vehicles; ferries should operate at a minimum speed of 11.5 mph and maintain a 45-minute schedule; ferries should operate seven days a week from 6:30 a.m. until 6:30 p.m.; and the draft of the ferries will not exceed 5 ½ feet.(The Sun Herald, September 12, 2006, p. A5)
In late September 2006, Hornblower Marine Services of New Albany, Indiana was awarded the contract to operate the ferry across the Bay of St. Louis. Hornblower has two ferries running in Alabama, the Mobile Bay Ferry and the Gees Bend Ferry. MDOT aspired that the company commence hauling motorcars at no cost to the patron by November 1st. The Federal Highway Department Emergency Relief Fund will pay for the service. Hornblower related that their twin ferry service could transport 748 motorcars daily across the Bay of St. Louis for approximately $30 dollars per vehicle. The last traffic count in 2005 found that 19,000 cars crossed the U.S. 90 span each day between Henderson Point and Bay St. Louis.(The Sun Herald, September 20, 2006, p. A2 and September 25, 2006, p. A1)
Also in late September 2006, MDOT awarded two contracts for dredging, pile driving, and materials to erect ferry terminals on opposite sides of the Bay of St. Louis and roads to reach them. The contracts were valued at more than $2.3 million dollars.(The Sun Herald, September 25, 2006, p. A1)
In early January 2006, Mayor Moran met with Federal and State officials to continue her campaign against the six lane span across Biloxi Bay. She addressed the issue of the projected growth rate of traffic flow used by MDOT as the basis for the large structure. Moran's consultants argued that MDOT had incorrectly interpreted the rate of increase by changing the traffic flow data, especially for the year 2004, when the daily traffic count on the U.S. 90 bridge actually decreased. Another factor not previously considered in the bridge study was the fact that a drawbridge would be needed to allow large vessels built at the Trinity Yacht shipyard on the Industrial Seaway at Gulfport to gain access to the Gulf of Mexico via Biloxi Bay. MDOT's plan for the new bridge called for no draw, but an 85-foot clearance for boats. (The Sun Herald, January 4, 2006, p. A2)
By mid-January, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems also voiced its negativity for a bridge without a draw span. They also have a fabrication plant on Industrial Seaway, which has plans to build composite masts and deckhouse superstructures for the USCG and US Navy. A fixed height bridge across Biloxi Bay would limit their ability to build larger ship components, especially for the military. (The Sun Herald, January 19, 2006, p. A2)
On January 13, 2006, technical proposals were submitted to MDOT for the erection of the new span across Biloxi Bay. Companies that demonstrated an interest in this venture were: American Bridge-Hill Brothers, Orlando, Florida; GC Constructors, Kansas City, Missouri; and Granite Archer Western, Watsonville, California. .(The Sun Herald, January 13, 2006, p. A3)
By mid-January, the USCG had not approved the Biloxi Bay bridge as proposed by MDOT. It was postulated that issues fielded during public hearings that had not been addressed were the salient reason that the USCG had not signed off on the bridge as presented. The lack of a draw span which would prohibit high profile vessels from ingress-egress into the Back Bay of Biloxi by several industries located on the Harrison County Industrial Seaway was a serious issue not addressed in the MDOT initial proposal. Wayne Brown, Southern District Highway Commissioner, commented that the addition of a draw would cost an additional $70 million to $80 million to the estimated $200 million dollar structure. A year to a year and half delay in completion was expected if a new bridge had to be designed. Some Harrison County representatives to the State Legislature and the Harrison County Development Commissioner expressed doubt about Commissioner Wayne Brown’s assessment of the time to redesign a bridge to meet the needs of the shipping industry on the Industrial Seaway. One spokesman viewed it as a threat(The Sun Herald, January 21, 2006, p. A1 and January 25, 2006, p. A1)
Only one bid was received by MDOT for the Biloxi-Ocean Springs Bridge. Granite Archer Western, a consortium of several construction companies, submitted a proposal of $275,900,000. MDOT had estimated the cost at $200,000,000, which was obviously disappointing. Granite Archer Western was also low bidder on the Bay of St. Louis Bridge, which received only two offers from contractors.(The Sun Herald, January 24, 2006, p. A1)
Boh Brothers Construction Company declined to bid on the Ocean Springs-Biloxi span because MDOT placed according to Boh Brothers, an onerous clause in the bid contract was added one week prior to bid opening. The language in the addendum was interpreted to be “open ended” and Boh Brothers felt the risk was beyond their tolerance.(The Sun Herald, March 29, 2006, p. A4)
An even larger span?
As a compromise with ship and yacht builders on the Industrial Seaway-Back Bay corridor and the Harrison County Development Commission, Butch Brown, director of MDOT, proposed to raise the height of the new bridge to 95 feet and dredge the channel beneath the structure to allow deeper draft vessels to utilize it. The US Coast Guard had issued a permit for a bridge with a vertical clearance of 85 feet and horizontal of 150 feet clearance for boat traffic. Governor Haley Barbour approved the MDOT compromise proposal, which was submitted to primarily appease Northrop Grumman and Trinity Yachts, both with shipbuilding facilities on the Industrial Seaway. These industries were proponents of a draw bridge. The new specifications for the bridge could result in several months delay for the only bidder, Granite Archer Western, to redesign the span based on a height of 95 feet above the water.(The Sun Herald, February 22, 2006, p. A1 and p. A6)
Wayne Brown, Southern District Transportation Commissioner (SDTC), related that MDOT had several options in regards commencing construction of the new span across the Bay of Biloxi: award the contract based on the 85-foot design and try to negotiate with Granite Archer Western on a price for adding 10 more vertical feet or re-advertise the project with the 95-foot vertical clearance and accept a delay of several months for a new design and the possibility of additional bidders. The final decision rested with MDOT’s legal staff and the Federal Highway Administration, who is financing most of the project.(The Sun Herald, February 22, 2006, p. A1 and February 28, 2006, p. A1)
In early March, Wayne Brown, SDTC, announced that that MDOT had decided to re-bid the Ocean Springs-Biloxi Bridge based on the new specifications, i.e. 95-foot vertical clearance. Those invited to submit bids were: GC Construction of Kansas City, Missouri, Yates/Hill of Philadelphia, Mississippi, and the initial bidder Granite Archer Western of Watsonville, California. Granite Archer Watson stated that it if they won the new bid, the earliest that their company could initiate construction on the Biloxi Bay crossing would be September 2006, a delay of six months because of their work on the Bay of St. Louis span. Commissioner Brown speculated that by August 2007, two lanes of traffic would be open on the new Ocean Springs-Biloxi span and that the bridge would be finished by June 2008. Wayne Brown stated that technical proposals for the new span would be accepted on May 26th and cost proposals on June 6th. It was anticipated that the cost proposal for the structure could exceed $300 million.(The Ocean Springs Record, March 9, 2006, p. A1 and The Sun Herald, April 8, 2008, p. A11 and May 26, 2006, p. A2)
On the appointed day in late May, three technical bid proposals were received by MDOT on the Ocean Springs-Biloxi Bay span: Granite Archer Western, Watsonville, California; GC Constructors, Kansas City, Missouri; and Yates/Hill Brothers, Philadelphia, Mississippi. Harry Lee James, MDOT chief engineer, expects the wining bid will range between $275 and $325 million dollars. The bridge contract will specify that two traffic lanes be open across the span in September 2007, and completion of the multilane structure by March 2008.(The Sun Herald, May 27, 2006, p. A2)
On June 5, 2006, GC Contractors of Kansas City, Missouri submitted the winning bid of $338.6 million for the 95-foot high, replacement span across Biloxi Bay destroyed by Katrina in late August 2005. The completed structure will have six traffic lanes, four breakdown and emergency lanes, and a bicycle-pedestrian path. GC Contractors planned to have two lanes open to traffic by mid-November 2007 and a completed bridge by late April 16, 2008. Granite Archer Western, who is building the Bay St. Louis replacement bridge, bid $343.8 million dollars on the Biloxi Bay bridge. Yates/Hill, a Mississippi company, bid $384.4 million dollars.(The Sun Herald, June 6, 2006, p. A1 and June 17, 2006, p. A3)
GC Contractors were formally contracted by MDOT to erect the Biloxi Bay span on June 6, 2006.(The Sun Herald, June 7, 2006, p. A2)
In April 2006, tug boat captains navigating the Biloxi Channel and passing through the Ocean Springs-Biloxi span reported that one of the bascule leaves had shifted. On April 17th, MDOT engineers inspected the bascules, which had been “frozen” in the up position since they were manually raised following the loss of electric power, which had occurred during Hurricane Katrina. Their observations were that the bascules have not moved and that the vertical clearance for marine travel was safe.(The Bay Press, April 28, 2006, p. 3)
The Katrina damaged Bay St. Louis Bridge was demolished in June 2006. Approximately 100,000 tons of concrete refuse will be utilized to create artificial reefs in the Mississippi Sound and repair the damaged Square Handkerchief Shoals about three miles south of the derelict span.(The Sun Herald, June 10, 2006, p. A1)
Demolition, removal, and dredging at Ocean Springs
[l-r: image August 2006; image September 2006 looking south; image November 2006]
In early July 2006, derrick barges began clearing the Katrina wrecked, US Highway 90 Bridge across Biloxi Bay. Also a barge-mounted, core drill began soil borings at selected sites in Biloxi Bay for civil engineers to determine foundation properties.(Observation by Ray L. Bellande)
Moran’s decorative accents rejected, BUT.............
At a meeting called by MDOT and held in Biloxi on July 26th, Mayor A.J. Holloway of Biloxi; Frank Leach, District Four Supervisor-Jackson County; Bobby Eleuterius, District One Supervisor-Harrison County; and Donovan Scruggs, City Planner for Ocean Springs, and Mayor Connie Moran’s surrogate, to vote on accents for the $338.6 million dollar span across Biloxi Bay, Ms. Moran’s ideas for decorative elements on the bridge abutments was rejected 3-1. Mayor Moran commented that Frank Leach had, “thrown Ocean Springs under the bus” for voting to have the abutments finished plain. The options for decorative accents were a raised Fleur de Lys and several boat designs. Donovan Scruggs commented post-vote that the choice to select none of the decorative proposals would create, “a nice concrete bunker.” The group selected olive as the color for the exterior beams of the bridge and an off-white color for the bicycle-pedestrian path. Mayor Holloway commented that Mayor Moran, “wants her way all the time. She got her way on the walking and bicycle path, which cost us I don’t know how much more than to leave off, and I don’t think anybody will use it.”(The Sun Herald, July 27, 2006, p. A1)
In a press conference held two days after her proposed aesthetics for the new Biloxi Bay bridge were rejected by Mayor Holloway and Supervisors Leach and Eleuterius, Mayor Moran related that all of her design proposals were in the budget and that they would not retard the scheduled completion date. Mississippi Transportation Commissioner, Butch Brown, had told Moran that he would consider her ideas on the Ocean Springs side of the span.(The Sun Herald, July 29, 2006, p. A1)
Mayor Moran made a public statement in early August 2006, relating that the City of Ocean Springs had negotiated with MDOT as early as September 2005 in regards the aesthetics of the new Biloxi Bay span. A compromise was made between the two entities and the resulting design description was written on what became known as "the gold sheet." The Gold Sheet was presented to to perspective bidders on the project, thus including the compromised aesthetic improvement requested by Ocean Springs in the budgeted bridge. Moran was not particularly disturbed by the negativity of Mayor A.J. Holloway et al. She told the public that, "The gold sheet as we are told time and time again, is really carved in stone. That's what we negotiated on the front end that we were assured would be included in the bridge design project." MDOT's Wayne Brown, Southern District Commissioner, stated that, "Ocean Springs got a great deal in the negotiations on the bridge. They got an attractive. It's going to have decorative lights. It's going to have down lighting. It is going to have a bike and pedestrian pathway. It's going to have see through rails. it will have an under trail where you can walk under the bridge. The bridge was brought down to the ground at water's edge. So Ocean Springs has been well treated by MDOT and also the Federal Highway Administration." (The Ocean Springs Record, August 3, 2006, p. A1)
By late August, the aesthetics of the planned Biloxi Bay span appeared to be solved, as Butch Brown, MDOT executive director and former Mayor of Natchez, agreed that MDOT would erect a wall on the Ocean Springs side of the structure that would surround the bridge abutment from the shoreline to the span. This wall would be the locus for local artists to create a mosaic or some other creative design. Mr. Brown said, "This is going to be the damnedest, most beautiful bridge you have ever seen. Connie Moran is going to run up and give me a hug."(The Sun Herald, August 19, 2006, p. A3)
In late August 2006, MDOT requested that public viewing of the demolition of the old span and erection of the new Ocean Springs-Biloxi Bridge be restricted to certain areas at a safe distance from the construction sites on both ends of the span. At Biloxi, designated “viewing sites” were the former J.L. Scott Marina parking lot adjacent to the Isle of Capri Casino and from Cadet Street. At Ocean Springs, curiosity viewers were advised to observed from Front Beach Drive.(The Bay Press, September 1, 2006, p. 15)
Steve Underwood, project director for GC Constructors, a joint venture of Massman Construction Company of Kansas City, Missouri; Kiewit Southern Company of Peachtree City, Georgia; Traylor Brothers of Evansville, Indiana; and Parson Transportation Group of Pasadena, California. announced in early December 2006, that the Biloxi Bay span was on schedule for the planned two-lane opening on November 13, 2007, with a completion anticipated in April 2008. At this time there are about two hundred and twenty five people employed on the project. This number will reach a maximum of three hundred. One quarter of the pilings have been driven for the new bridge. Twelve of the seventy-two piers have been completed. Forty percent of the old bridge has been demolished and the ruins deposited south of Deer Island to construct artificial fishing reefs.(The Sun Herald, December 8, 2006, p. A2 and The Ocean Springs Record, January 18, 2007, p. A1)
On December 18, 2006, the first series of beams were set on piers on the Biloxi side of the Ocean Springs-Biloxi span. Wayne Brown, Southern District Highway Commissioner, stated that the bridge construction appeared to be ahead of schedule. Two lanes are anticipated to be open on November 13, 2007.(The Mississippi Press, December 19, 2006, p. A-4)
By 1 January 2007, the westbound land from the Biloxi end of the span was progressing well as 41 of the 69 piers had been completed. Also about half of the 2300 cubic yards of concrete that had been poured for the bridge piers in December 2006 was at the main span where the footing for Pier 53 and the columns and struts for Piers 52 and 53 were poured. At Ocean Springs, the overpass crossing the CSX RR tracks was also the scene of much activity, as the north side of the U.S. Highway 90 eastbound embankment had been raised to its new grade level with fill dirt and the retaining wall to support it was in place. Concrete piles and substructure work was also progressing well on the westbound lane of U.S. Highway 90 CSX RR crossing.( The Ocean Springs Record, January 18, 2007, p. A1)
In early February 2007, it was announced that the Ocean Springs-Biloxi bridge was on schedule to be open to one lane traffic on November 13th and to be completed by April 16, 2008. The contractors are due a $5 million dollar bonus if the November deadline is accomplished or face a $100,000 per day penalty if they fail. The first concrete deck pour was made on February 7th. The concrete from the older bridge is being transported south of Deer Island to build an artificial fish reef and protect the south of the island from erosion.(The Sun Herald, February 8, 2007, p. A1)
By early May 2007, the most difficult iron work on the Ocean Springs-Biloxi Bridge had been accomplished as steel workers set beams across the highest elevation on the new span, i.e. across the ship channel. The ship channel lies ninety-five feet below.(The Sun Herald, May 3, 2007, p. A1)
In early June, the city governments of Ocean Springs and Biloxi commenced planning for the projected November 13th Biloxi Bay bridge opening. Mayor Connie Moran will call for designs and sketches from local artists for murals and mosaics to be utilized for free-standing panels to camouflage the bridge pilings on the north shore of the span. Mayor A.J. Holloway of Biloxi and Frank Leach, District 4 Supervisor of Jackson County, selected a teal blue for the steel girder that supports the bridge railing.(The Sun Herald, June 4, 2007, p. A2)
In mid-July, MDOT officials announced that “Absent of any unforeseen events, the bridge will be released to us on or by November 1. We plan to open the bridge to the public on November 1.” It is estimated that of the 85,000 motorcars using US Interstate 10, 35,000 of them would be using the new Ocean Springs-Biloxi span.(The Sun Herald, July 15, 2007, p. A1)
The incipient concept for the 2007 span’s artwork is that copper plates from the 1962 Ocean Springs-Biloxi Bay Bridge will be etched with artists’ sketches and attached to the railing every quarter mile to of the bike and walking path. In mid-August, a call to local artists was issued by Wayne Brown, MDOT’s Commissioner for its Southern Mississippi District. He said, “It is my hope that the beautiful artwork by our talented local artists will encourage citizens and visitors to use the pedestrian walkway.” Both the Mary Cahill O’Keefe Cultural Center at Ocean Springs and the Ohr-O’Keefe Museum of Art in Biloxi are accepting artist’s proposals for the bridge.(The Sun Herald, June 4, 2007, p. A2 and August 17, 2007, p. A2)
MDOT funded the City of Ocean springs to erect four free standing decorative panels near the OSYC and close to the base of the span’s southeast side. In late February 2009, Mayor Moran and Wayne Brown, MDOT executive, introduced Elizabeth Veglia, a mosaic artist, as the director of the ‘bridge panel project’. Artists were notified that designs with a coastal theme had to be submitted by March 28th. (The Sun Herald, February 25, 2008, p. A3, February 26, 2008, p. A3 and The Ocean Springs Record, February 28, 2008, p. A1)
Local artists selected to submit designs to Ms. Veglia to create her four panel mosaic mural were: Christopher Inglis Stebly; Susie Ranager; Ching Walters; and Pat Odom. Elizabeth Veglia, artist and project director, installed two of the mural panels in late October. The completed four-panel work was dedicated on May 15, 2009.(The Ocean Springs Record, October 30, 2008, p. A3 and April 30, 2009, p. 4 and The Sun Herald, December 7, 2008, p. F1, and May 16, 2009, p. A5)
In September 2009, the Ocean Springs City Council voted unanimously to prohibit dogs on the Ocean Springs portion of the Biloxi Bay Bridge. Owners of pets not removing the excrement dropped by their canines on the walkway was the salient reason for this action. The doggy bag disposal station was removed and a “No Dogs” sign replaced it. Biloxi continued to allow dogs on its side of the span.(The Sun Herald, September 17, 2009, p. A1)
After Katrina: Rebuilding Lives and Infrastructure, (MDOT: Jackson, Mississippi-2007).
Artists of the Gulf Coast-A Commemorative Coloring Book, (MDOT: Jackson, Mississippi-2007).
Biloxi Bay Bridge-Ribbon Tying Ceremony, (MDOT: Jackson, Mississippi-2007).
Mississippi Renewal Forum, Summary Report, (The Town Paper: Gaithersburg, Maryland-2005).
The Bay Press, “On building bridges [guest editorial by Biloxi Mayor A.J. Holloway]”, February 3, 2006, p. 1.
The Bay Press, “MDOT inspects drawbridge”, April 28, 2006, p. 3.
The Bay Press, “Bridge viewers restricted to certain areas”, September 1, 2006, p. 15.
The Bay Press, “Biloxi-Ocean Springs bridge on schedule”, August 24, 2007, p. 1.
The Bay Press, “New bridge to feature local artwork”, August 24, 2007, p. 3.
The Bay Press, “Bridging the Gap”, Commemorative Section, October 25, 2007.
The Mississippi Press, “OS/Biloxi bridge project hits visible milestone”, December 19, 2006.
The Mississippi Press, “Celebration”, October 30, 2007, p. 1-A.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Bridge replacement process moves along", October 6, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Aldermen weigh second MDOT bridge plan", October 13, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Ferry still on city wish list pending bridge", November 3, 2005, p. A7.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Moran: Ocean Springs MDOT must unite", November 3, 2005, p. A4.
The Ocean Springs Record, "City OK may clear way for bridge", November 10, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "MDOT not listening to Ocean Springs bridge issues, Mayor says", November 10, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Group questions bridge", November 17, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "MDOT money woes cause bridge delay", December 1, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Brown defends MDOT's six-lane plans", December 8, 2005, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Bridge battles", January 5, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Studies of MDOT data take issue with six lanes", January 5, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Residents speak out, but board takes no action", January 5, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Six-lane bridge only option, Brown says", January 12, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "Aldermen take on bridge plan tonight", January 12, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "City acquiesces to six-lane bridge”", January 19, 2006, p. A1
The Ocean Springs Record, “City pursues temporary US 90 bridge”, February 9, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "MDOT to rebid bridge”, March 9, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, "(Gene) Taylor touts safety factor of MDOT’s bridge plans”, May 18, 2006, p. A6.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Signature’ bridge pushed’, August 3, 2006, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Brrr-bridge”, January 18, 2007, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Bridge work on schedule”, June 14, 2007, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “City’s bridge party plans are under construction”, October 11, 2007, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Search for [Biloxi Bay Bridge celebration] money ends with success”, October 25, 2007, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Bridging the Gap”, Commemorative Section, October 25, 2007.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Students celebrate bridge”, November 1, 2007, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Bridge party details announced”, November 1, 2007, p. A3.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Postmark to commemorate bridge-opening milestone”, November 1, 2007, p. A3.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Murals come to life”, October 30, 2008, p. A3.
The Sun Herald
The Sun Herald, "Temporary ferry system under discussion", October 21, 2005, p. A10.
The Sun Herald, "Bridge will have extras", November 3, 2005, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, "Denyer: Megabridge not for O.S.", November 16, 2005, p. A9.
The Sun Herald, "History, future square off on design", December 1, 2005, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "'We can proceed' MDOT: Cities agree on bridge plan", December 7, 2005, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Moran to oppose bridge in letter", December 7, 2005, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, "MDOT's bridge plan backed", December 14, 2005, p. A16.
The Sun Herald, "O.S. Mayor battles six-lane bridge, "December 23, 2005, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Jackson County Supports 6 lanes, "December 29, 2005, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "He's (Wayne Brown) no poet, and he knows it, "December 29, 2005, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, "Moran to meet about bridge", January 2, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "U.S. 90 bridge project still in limbo", January 4, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Bridge design may not fly", January 4, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Bridge proposals to be submitted today", January 13, 2006, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, "Aldermen support six-lane bridge”, January 14, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "If you can’t raise the bridge”, January 19, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Drawbridge or no? Be prepared for delay”, January 21, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bids on bridges come in high”, January 24, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Threat or truth? ”, January 25, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Lifespan ”, February 3, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT’s way or the highway, it seems? ”, February 3, 2006, p. A10.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Bay bridge update”, February 3, 2006, p. A10.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT ups the ante to 95 feet”, February 22, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bid may be let Tuesday…or not”, February 23, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge’s fate lies with feds, attorneys”, February 28, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT eases up on bridge”, March 29, 2006, p. A4.
The Sun Herald, “Before and After [Katrina]-‘Biloxi Bay Bridge”, April 1, 2006, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, “Paving the way”, April 8, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT cautious on ferries”, April 20, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Bay bridge coming”, May 16, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT gets three bridge bids”, May 27, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “K.C. firm wins bid on bridge”, June 6, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Ferry service sinking”, June 7, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “Old bridge is making new reefs”, June 10, 2006, p. A1,
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Bay bridge is on its way”, June 17, 2006, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, “None of the above’ wins out on bridge”, July 27, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Moran presses her case for nicer bridge", July 29, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Moran, MDOT agree on pretty bridge", August 19, 2006, p. 3.
The Sun Herald, "Ferry work project bids come in high”, September 12, 2006, p. A5.
The Sun Herald, "MDOT set to let ferry contract”, September 20, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Cost of convenience”, September 25, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Ferry expected this afternoon”, October 31, 2006, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Ferry to set sail”, November 1, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Great day for a ferry ride”, November 2, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Bridge coming along”, December 8, 2006, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, "Bridge on schedule”, February 8, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "
The Sun Herald, "The missing link”, May 2, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Going UP”, May 3, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, "Commemorative Section”-‘Spanning history’, May 13, 2007, 15 pages.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi-O.S. to start planning bridge party”, June 4. 2007. p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT planning bridge dedication”, June 6, 2007, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “One dead, one missing in bridge accident [Bay St. Louis]”, June 15, 2007.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge work [Bay St. Louis]halts, probe begins”, June 16, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge work [Bay St. Louis] resumes today; names of injured not released”, June 19, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Expect ‘celebration to remember’”, June 24, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge may be open early”, July 15, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge on schedule”, August 17, 2007, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “Lighting to delay Bay [Bay St. Louis] bridge”, October 2, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Funding, logo for bridge fete OK’d”, October 10, 2007, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, “Moran calls on history in logo defense”, October 11, 2007, p. A9.
The Sun Herald, “Beam plunges off bridge into bay”, October 18, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Let’s cross this bridge when we come to it”, October 21, 2007, p. F4.
The Sun Herald, “Cause unknown for bridge beam fall”, October 22, 2007, p. A2.
The Sun Herald, “New bridge is already ‘tagged’”, October 27, 2007, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, “Political overtones for bridge opening”, October 28, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Reconnected [Commemorative Section]”, October 28, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Four days to go”, October 28, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Bay Bridge/Past and Present”, October 28, 2007, p. A7.
The Sun Herald, “New bridge bends at both ends”, October 30, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge to open after day of parties”, October 31, 2007, p. A10.
The Sun Herald, “Ocean Springs events”, October 31, 2007, p. A10.
The Sun Herald, “Together again”, November 1, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “So much more than a bridge”, November 1, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge celebration highlights”, November 1, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Official MDOT events”, November 1, 2007, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi events”, November 1, 2007, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, “Ocean Springs events”, November 1, 2007, p. A8.
The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Bay Bridge is cause to celebrate”, November 1, 2007, p. C2.
The Sun Herald, “Open for business”, November 2, 2007, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge Opening: Biloxi, November 2, 2007, p. A6.
The Sun Herald, “The last missing link”, November 2, 2007, p. A6.
The Sun Herald, “Bridge Opening: Biloxi, November 2, 2007, p. A6.Biloxi
The Sun Herald, “Bridge Opening: Ocean Springs, November 2, 2007, p. A7.
The Sun Herald, “A day to celebrate the days ahead”, November 2, 2007, p. A7.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Bridge in final phase, artists called”, February 28, 2008, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Ocean Springs calls for submissions for bridge art”, February 25, 2008, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, “Four artists’ work sought for bridge”, February 26, 2008, p. A3.
The Sun Herald, “MDOT expects to open all lanes Monday”, April 3, 2008, p. A2.
The Ocean Springs Record, “Officials to dedicate mosaic bridge panels”, April 30, 2009, p. 3.
The Ocean Springs Record, “The Biloxi Bay Bridge and all things considered”, May 21, 2009, p. 3.
The Sun Herald, “Mayoral hopefuls [Moran-Walker] debate bridge”, May 24, 2009, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Symbol of unity shouldn’t divide Ocean Springs”, May 24, 2009, 2009, p. B2.
The Sun Herald, “OS bans dogs from bridge”, September 17, 2009, p. A1.
The Ocean Springs Gazette, “Dog ban on bridge spurs comments”, September 24, 2009, p. 16.